Terms and abbreviations
used during IVF process
**************terms you might hear in medical office and unsure what they mean*****************
FOLLICLE versus EGG versus EMBRYO:
Egg is located in Follicle, follicle is present in the Ovary and the follicles are extracted during EGG RETRIEVAL
Embryo is Fertilized Egg – during IVF, embryo is implanted to uterus during EMBRYO TRANSFER
ABO/Rh - ABO blood groups include O, A, B, or AB. TheRh antigen is another compound that may or may not be present on the surface of red blood cells. The Rhtest determines whether this configuration is present ("Rh-positive") or absent ("Rh-negative") on an individual's blood cells.
AH (Assisted Hatching) - lab technique that was developed when fertility experts observed that embryos with a thin zona pellucida had a higher rate of implantation during IVF. With assisted hatching, an embryologist uses micromanipulation under a microscope to create a small hole in the zona pellucida.
AFC – antra follicle count
AMH – anti-mullerian hormone fertility testing gives an estimate of the remaining egg supply, or ovarian reserve
ART - Assisted reproductive technology is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. It is reproductive technology used primarily for infertility treatments, and is also known as fertility treatment.
ASRM – American Society of Reproductive Medicine
Bacterial vaginosis - is an infection in the vagina. BV is caused by changes in the amount of certain types of bacteria in your vagina. BV is common, and any woman can get it. BV is easily treatable with medicine from your doctor or nurse. If left untreated, it can raise your risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cause problems during pregnancy.
Baseline – after calling us with day 1 of the period and before starting the medication, you will schedule an appointment for ultrasound and bloodwork
BID – twice a day
Blastocyst - An embryo that has developed for five to seven days after fertilization and has 2 distinct cell types and a central cavity filled with fluid (blastocoel cavity) The cells in a blastocyst have just started to differentiate.
CA 125 - test which measures the amount of the protein CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in your blood.
CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CGH - Comparative genomic hybridization is a molecular cytogenetic method for analysing copy number variations (CNVs) relative to ploidy level in the DNA of a test sample compared to a reference sample, without the need for culturing cells.
Chromosome - a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Cmd 1 – after few days of stimulation, you will schedule an appointment for ultrasound and bloodwork
CPT code - Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) is a medical code set that is used to report medical, surgical, and diagnostic procedures and services to entities such as physicians, health insurance companies and accreditation organizations.
Cryopreservation of embryos - is the process of preserving an embryo at sub-zero temperatures, generally at an embryogenesis stage corresponding to pre-implantation, that is, from fertilization to the blastocyst stage
Cycle monitoring – ultrasound and bloodwork appointments during stimulation/cycle treatment to ensure everything is going according to the cycle plan/expectations so the necessary adjustments can be made if needed
Cystic Fibrosis – Cystic fibrosis is a progressive, genetic disease that causes persistent lung infections and limits the ability to breathe over time.
D&C – dilution & curretage (cleanse of uterus after miscarriage)
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.The fundamental and distinctive characteristics or qualities of someone or something, especially when regarded as unchangeable.
Ectopic pregnancy - A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus.
Eggs - are stored within follicles in the ovary. ... However, even though hundreds of eggs have begun to mature, most often only one egg will become dominant during each menstrual cycle, and reach its' fully mature state, capable of ovulation and fertilization. The remaining eggs/follicles will wither and die
Egg donor – known or unknown – a young woman donating her eggs to recipient using IVF procedure in exchange for financial appreciation
Egg retrieval – procedure where a needle is passed through the top of the vagina under ultrasound guidance to get to the ovary and follicles. The fluid in the follicles is aspirated through the needle and the eggs detach from the follicle wall and are sucked out of the ovary
Embryo transfer - refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.
Endometrium - the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the uterus (womb). The endometrium changes throughout the menstrual cycle. It becomes thick and rich with blood vessels to prepare for pregnancy. If the woman does not get pregnant, part of the endometrium is shed, causing menstrual bleeding.
Endometrial biopsy - is the removal of a small piece of tissue from the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus. This tissue sample can show cell changes due to abnormal tissues or variations in hormone levels.
E2 (Estradiol) - a steroid, an estrogen, and the primary female sex hormone. It is named for and is important in the regulation of the estrous and menstrual female reproductive cycles. Estradiol is essential for the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues such as the breasts, uterus, and vagina during puberty, adulthood, and pregnancy but it also has important effects in many other tissues including bone, fat, skin, liver, and the brain
Fallopian tubes - also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the utero tubal junction. The uterine tube (fallopian tube) carries an egg from the ovary to the uterus. Unless a biological abnormality, surgery, or ectopic pregnancy caused the loss of one tube, women should have two uterine tubes in their bodies.
Fluid ultrasound (FUS) – or sonohysterography is a special kind of ultrasound exam. Fluid is put into the uterus through the cervix using a thin plastic tube. Sound waves are then used to create images of the lining of the uterus. The fluid helps show more detail than when ultrasound is used alone.
Follicle – ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac that contains an immature egg, or oocyte. These follicles are found in the ovaries. During ovulation, a mature egg is released from a follicle.
Frozen embryo transfer(FET) – is a cycle in which the frozen embryos from a previous fresh IVF or donor egg cycle are thawed and then transferred back into the woman's uterus. The chance of having embryos available to freeze greatly depends on age.
FSH - a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) work together in the reproductive system.
Genetic carrier screen - Many genetic diseases are recessive, meaning the disease is caused by inheriting a mutation at the same DNA location from both parents. If a parent carries a mutation in one of the two copies of the DNA, he/she is a carrier of the genetic disease. If both you and your partner are carriers of a disorder like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, or Tay-Sachs disease, your child will have a 1 in 4 chance of inheriting one defective gene from each of you and being born with the disease.
Gestational Surrogate – a woman who carries a fetus for intended parents to the full term
HCG – human chorionic gonadotropin – hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is made by cells formed in the placenta, which nourishes the egg after it has been fertilized and becomes attached to the uterine wall.
HCT – hematocrit - blood test determines the percentage of red blood cells in the blood
HCV - hepatitis C
HGB –hemoglobin - is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.
HE4 - Human epididymis protein 4 belongs to the family of whey acidic four-disulfide core proteins. Might determine presence of ovarian cancer.
HPT – home pregnancy test
HSC -hysteroscopy - a procedure that allows your doctor to look inside your uterus in order to diagnose and treat causes of abnormal bleeding. Hysteroscopy is done using a hysteroscope, a thin, lighted tube that is inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside of the uterus
HSG /Hysterosalpingogram - an X-ray test. It looks at the inside of the uterus and fallopian tubes and the area around them. It often is done for women who are having a hard time getting pregnant (infertile).During the test, a dye (contrast material) is put through a thin tube. That tube is put through the vagina and into the uterus. Because the uterus and the fallopian tubes are hooked together, the dye will flow into the fallopian tubes. Pictures are taken using a steady beam of X-ray (fluoroscopy) as the dye passes through the uterus and fallopian tubes. The pictures can show problems such as an injury or abnormal structure of the uterus or fallopian tubes. They can also show a blockage that would prevent an egg moving through a fallopian tube to the uterus. A blockage also could prevent spermfrom moving into a fallopian tube and joining (fertilizing) an egg. The test also may find problems on the inside of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from attaching (implanting) to the uterine wall.
H & P – history and physical
ICD 10 - stands for the International Classification of Diseases, and its codes hold critical information about epidemiology, managing health, and treating conditions. Healthcare professionals use ICD codes to record and identify health conditions.
ICSI - Intracytoplasmic sperm injection - is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg
IM - intramuscular - An intramuscular injection is a technique used to deliver a medication deep into the muscles. This allows the medication to be absorbed into the bloodstream quickly
IUI – intrauterine insemination - fertility treatment that involves placing sperm inside a woman's uterus to facilitate fertilization. The goal of IUI is to increase the number of sperm that reach the fallopian tubes and subsequently increase the chance of fertilization
IVF – in vitro fertilization - In Vitro Fertilization is an assisted reproductive technology (ART) commonly referred to as IVF. IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.
Karyotype - the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species
LH – hormone produced by the pituitary gland. LH helps regulate the menstrual cycle and egg production (ovulation). How much LH is in a woman's body depends on the phase of her menstrual cycle. This hormone goes up fast just before ovulation occurs, about midway through the cycle (day 14 of a 28-day cycle). This is called an LH surge. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels rise and fall together during the monthly cycle
MET (Mock embryo transfer) - The “mock” embryo transfer is a trial run of the actual embryo transfer. It allows the doctor to determine the best “route” to the ideal embryo landing place in your uterus, to measure the length from cervix to that ideal place, and ensure that there are no unexpected road bumps along the way (like an undetected fibroid, scar tissue on the cervix, or other problem that may make transfer difficult).
Mitochondria - an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
Morphology - size and shape of the sperm
Motility – movement/direction of sperm
Natural IUI - (unstimulated) intrauterine insemination (IUI) means you undergo the procedure without using fertility drugs to regulate or trigger ovulation (stimulated/medicated IUI)
Oocyte – An oocyte is an immature egg (an immature ovum)
Ovarian Assessment Report - provides the most accurate available assessment of a woman's ovulatory egg supply using a single blood sample (E2, FSH, LH, Inhibin B, AMH tested in conjunction)
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) – a medical condition affecting the ovaries of some women who take fertility medication to stimulate egg growth. Most cases are mild, but rarely the condition is severe and can lead to serious illness or death.
Ovulation Induction - the stimulation of ovulation by medication. It is usually used in the sense of stimulation of the development of ovarian follicles to reverse anovulation or oligoovulation, but can also be used in the sense of triggering oocyte release from relatively mature ovarian follicles.
PGS – Preimplantation genetic screening – genetic testing on embryos
PGD – Preimplantation genetic diagnostics – genetic testing on embryos for specific disease
PPI – post pregnancy instructions
Pre cycle lab work(PCLW) – labs/tests which need to be concluded before starting IVF/IUI treatment
P4 – Progesterone - the hormone that is produced in the ovaries, the placenta (when a woman gets pregnant) and the adrenal glands. It helps prepare your body for conception and pregnancy and regulates the monthly menstrual cycle.
Rubella - a contagious viral disease, with symptoms like mild measles. It can cause fetal malformation if contracted in early pregnancy.
RPR – Syphillis
QD – once a day
QHS – at night
SA/SE(semen analysis/semen evaluation) - semen testing that evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein. It is done to help evaluate male fertility, whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy.
SART – Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology
SHG – sonohystogram/fluid ultrasound
Sickle cell – a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents. The most common type is known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA). It results in an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin (hemoglobin S) found in red blood cells.
SMA - (spinal muscular atrophy) is a disease that robs people of physical strength by affecting the motor nerve cells in the spinal cord, taking away the ability to walk, eat, or breathe. It is the number one genetic cause of death for infants. SMA is caused by a mutation in the survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1)
Sonohysterography - a special kind of ultrasound exam. Fluid is put into the uterus through the cervix using a thin plastic tube. Sound waves are then used to create images of the lining of the uterus. The fluid helps show more detail than when ultrasound is used alone.
Sperm count – describes the concentration of the sperm in ejaculate
Sperm wash - the process in which individual sperms are separated from the semen. Washed sperm is used in artificial insemination using the intrauterine insemination (IUI) technique and in in vitro fertilization (IVF).
STDs – sexually transmitted infectious diseases (HIV ½, Hep BSaG, Hep C AB, RPR/VDRL, HTLV I/II)
SQ - subcutaneous - A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis (fatty tissue)
TESE - Testicular sperm extraction is the process of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle under local anesthesia and extracting the few viable sperm cells present in that tissue for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
TID – 3 times per day
TSH – hormone that is typically used as a marker of thyroid health
Ultrasound – we use transvaginal ultrasound - a type of pelvic ultrasound used by doctors to examine female reproductive organs. This includes the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, cervix, and vagina.
Uterus - commonly known as the womb, is a hollow muscular organ of the female reproductive system that is responsible for the development of the embryo and fetus during pregnancy.
Varicella - Chickenpox (chicken pox), also known as varicella, is a highly contagious infection caused by the varicella zoster virus. During pregnancy can cause serious birth defects to the baby
West Nile Virus - a virus most commonly spread to people by mosquito bites. In North America, cases of West Nile virus (WNV) occur during mosquito season, which starts in the summer and continues through fall. WNV cases have been reported in all of the continental United States. There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not have symptoms. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms. About 1 out of 150 infected people develop a serious, sometimes fatal, illness. You can reduce your risk of WNV by using insect repellent and wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants to prevent mosquito bites.
VDRL - Syphillis
Yeast infection – Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the fungus Candida albicans. At least 3 out of 4 women will experience a yeast infection at one point in their lives. The main symptoms are itching, burning, unusual discharge, and pain during urination or sex.
ZIKA – is a mosquito-borne infection which was first identified in Africa in 1947. It has spread significantly across the world since the first reported case in Brazil in 2015.
Zygote - fertilized egg cell that results from the union of a female gamete (egg, or ovum) with a male gamete (sperm)